Secondary Succession

Secondary succession occurs when an established ecosystem slowly renews itself after its habitat has been damaged. Students can utilise the resources in this lesson to study this concept, and then take their studies outside to find examples in their own community.

Observe changes in ecosystems.

A common example of secondary succession is an abandoned field at a farm. After the farmer stops using the land to grow crops, it will eventually revert to its previous natural state. Read Chapter 40, Section 3 of E.O. Wilson’s Life on Earth and watch Movie 40.3, Starting Over, to learn about the rules of succession and see how it happens in real life.

Life on Earth, Unit 7

Download for free in iBooks

Explore an abandoned habitat.

Consult field guides, local authorities and wildlife agencies for information about indigenous plants and how they have been affected by succession in an abandoned field or development near you. Use Pages to write a story, or create a timeline with the RWT Timeline app to imagine what might happen to this location. Identify the species that are likely to colonise the open area and describe how the plant communities will change over time. Do local research to find photos and information about what the area used to look like and why, compared to its current state.

Apply the rules of succession.

In your town or city, look for examples of current road or construction projects that encroach on wild habitat areas. Use the SketchBook Express app to illustrate and explain how such instances are examples of habitat fragmentation, and describe how the environment has changed.

In a functioning ecosystem, the process of secondary succession never really ends.

E.O. Wilson’s Life on Earth

Celebrate Earth Day.

Learning Materials

Explore the Earth Day collection of apps, books and more in iTunes.

Customise your lessons
Apple and the Environment

See what Apple is doing to help leave the world a better place.

Learn more


Apple and Education