The Apple Thunderbolt Display requires a Thunderbolt port.
The Apple Thunderbolt 3 to Thunderbolt 2 adapter also requires a Thunderbolt port.
The MacBook does not have a Thunderbolt port.
Therefore, you need to add a Thunderbolt port. You could try getting a GC-ALPINE RIDGE Thunderbolt 3 add-in card, connect it to a powered PCIe slot (such as a PCIe riser, or a desktop computer with a free PCIe slot), connect a USB-C to Mini DisplayPort cable between your MacBook's USB-C port and one of the Mini DisplayPort inputs of the GC-ALPINE RIDGE. Connect the Thunderbolt display to the Thunderbolt 3 port of the GC-ALPINE RIDGE using an Apple Thunderbolt 3 to Thunderbolt 2 Adapter. Since there is no PCIe connection between the GC-ALPINE RIDGE and your MacBook, you won't be able to use any of the non-display functions of the Display (USB, FireWire, Ethernet, camera, audio). I don't know if this configuration is compatible with the Apple Thunderbolt Display (I believe similar configurations work with the LG UltraFine 5K display).
It may be less expensive to get a new display.