Additional Questions More answers to your questions about Apple and the environment.

Who leads environmental efforts at Apple?

In June 2013, Apple CEO Tim Cook appointed Lisa P. Jackson as Vice President, Environmental Initiatives. The Office of Environmental Initiatives works with teams across Apple to set strategy, engage stakeholders and communicate progress on Apple’s commitments to address climate change, develop green materials for safer products and use materials as efficiently as possible.

Apple’s Board of Directors oversees the CEO and other senior management in the competent and ethical operation of Apple on a day-to-day basis and ensures that the long-term interests of shareholders are being served. Lisa, who is now Vice President, Environment, Policy and Social Initiatives, reports to the CEO. Our integrated approach means that decisions about environmental and social issues are reviewed at the highest levels of the company. Executive Team members regularly review each new product during its development, focusing on material and design choices, the supply chain, packaging and product energy efficiency.

How does Apple conduct its Product Greenhouse Gas Life Cycle Assessment?

Apple uses five steps when conducting a product life cycle assessment (LCA):

  1. To model the manufacturing phase, we use part-by-part measurements of the entire product along with data on part production. The measurements help us accurately determine the size and weight of the components and materials in the product, while data on manufacturing processes and yield loss during production allows us to account for the impact of manufacturing. The LCA includes accessories, packaging and units that are repaired and replaced through AppleCare, as well as decreased emissions through our Clean Energy Program.
  2. To model customer use, we measure the power consumed by a product while it is running in a simulated scenario. Daily usage patterns are specific to each product and are a mixture of actual and modelled customer use data. For the purposes of our assessment, years of use, which are based on first owners, are modelled to be four years for macOS X and tvOS devices and three years for iOS and watchOS devices. Most Apple products last longer and are often passed along, resold or returned to Apple by the first owner for others to use. More information on our product energy use is provided in our Product Environmental Reports.
  3. To model transportation, we use data collected on shipments of single products and multipack units by land, sea and air. We account for transporting materials between manufacturing sites; transporting products from manufacturing sites to regional distribution hubs; transporting products from regional distribution hubs to individual customers; and transporting products from final customers to recycling facilities.
  4. To model end of life, we use material composition data on our products and estimate the ratio of products that are sent to recycling or disposal. For products sent to recycling, we capture the initial processing by the recycler to prepare the product for recovery of electronic, metal, plastic and glass material streams. Subsequent downstream recycling processes are not included, as these are considered stages of production and not end‑of‑life processing. For products sent to disposal, we capture the emissions associated with landfilling or incineration of each type of material.
  5. After we collect data about manufacturing, use, transportation and end of life, we combine it with detailed greenhouse gas emission data. This emission data is based on a combination of Apple-specific and industry-average datasets for material production, manufacturing processes, electricity generation and transportation. Renewable energy used in the supply chain, initiated by suppliers independently or through the Apple Supplier Clean Energy Program, are also accounted for within the LCA model. Combining product-specific information with emission data in our LCA allows us to compile detailed results for greenhouse gas emissions as they relate to each product. The data and modelling approaches are checked for quality and accuracy by the Fraunhofer Institute in Germany.

Does Apple set greenhouse gas emission reduction goals?

We calculate our carbon footprint comprehensively — not only considering the emissions from our direct operations, but also looking at the life cycle carbon impacts of our products. We then set out to create a robust renewable energy programme to address these emissions. In 2018, we announced that we reached our goal of powering all our corporate facilities (Scope 2 emissions) with renewable energy. That means we generate or procure 100% renewable energy for all the electricity used at our data centres, retail stores and offices across 43 countries around the globe.

We also have a goal of reducing emissions in our supply chain by helping our suppliers switch to clean energy. By 2020, we and our suppliers will generate and procure 4 gigawatts of renewable energy to reduce emissions from manufacturing our products. That’s equivalent to roughly one-third of our current manufacturing footprint.

Does Apple obtain third-party verification and assurance for its environmental impact data?

Yes. We obtain third-party verification for our Scope 1, 2 and 3 greenhouse gas emissions, as well as our energy use, waste and water impacts for our data centres, offices and retail stores worldwide. Bureau Veritas (BV) provides “reasonable assurance” — one of the highest levels of verification in the industry — for this environmental impact data. See the BV statement here.

Scope 3 greenhouse gas emissions related to our products, calculated using life cycle assessment, are checked for quality and accuracy by the Fraunhofer Institute in Germany in accordance with the internationally recognized ISO 14000 environmental management standards: ISO 14040 and 14044. See the Fraunhofer statement here.

Does Apple have an Environmental Health and Safety Policy?

Yes. Apple is committed to protecting the environment and the health and safety of our employees, our customers and the global communities in which we operate. For more information, read our Environmental Health and Safety Policy Statement (PDF).

Does Apple index its environmental performance data using Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) Sustainability Reporting Guidelines?

Apple is committed to openness in our environmental, social and governance policies and programmes, and we share our progress through a variety of public reports, including our 2018 Environmental Responsibility Report. These reports contain Standard Disclosures from the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) G4 Sustainability Reporting Guidelines. Apple’s GRI Index can be viewed here.

Does Apple restrict substances that are hazardous to human health and the environment?

Yes. Apple’s Regulated Substances Specification details a broad range of substances that are restricted or banned from use in Apple products, packaging and manufacturing. All Apple products conform to the European Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive, which restricts the use of lead and other substances. As a result of our precautionary approach to substances, many of Apple’s restrictions exceed regulatory requirements. View Apple’s Regulated Substances Specification (PDF) or learn more about our efforts to reduce and eliminate hazardous substances.

In addition, all Apple products comply with Vietnamese Circular 30/2011/TT-BCT, regulating lead and other substances in electronic products.

Does Apple restrict brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) from its products?

Yes. Apple defines a material as BFR‑free and PVC‑free if it contains less than 900 parts per million (ppm) of bromine and of chlorine. The 900‑ppm limit is one of the strictest in the electronics industry and a concentration lower than the ban on lead in the EU RoHS Directive. If BFRs or PVC were present, the bromine or chlorine levels would need to be significantly higher than 900 ppm in order to be effective.

Apple’s phaseout of BFRs and PVC covers all new Apple product designs manufactured since 2009 and all Beats products manufactured since 2016. While Apple’s phaseout covers the vast majority of products and components, Beddit products and some older Apple product designs may not be fully BFR‑free and PVC‑free. However, these products, including their replacement parts and accessories, were still designed to meet regulatory requirements. Power cords in India and South Korea contain PVC due to country-specific requirements. We continue to seek approval for our PVC replacement.

What is REACH, and how is Apple complying with the REACH regulation?

The Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals Regulation EC 1907/2006, commonly referred to as REACH, is a European regulation on chemicals and their safe use. With the publication of candidate lists for authorization, the European Chemicals Agency identifies sets of substances of very high concern (SVHC) that manufacturers must disclose to customers if used in their products above 0.1% by weight.

Based on the current version of the candidate list for authorization, Apple products contain the following SVHCs above the disclosure threshold:

Lithium-Ion Batteries
iPhone, iPad, MacBook, Apple Watch, AirPods, Beats wireless headphones and speakers, iPod, Magic Mouse, Magic Trackpad, Magic Keyboard, iPhone Smart Battery Case, Apple Pencil
Coin Cell Batteries
Apple Remote, iMac, Mac Pro, Mac mini
Lead titanium zirconium oxide
Hard Disk Drives
iMac, Mac mini, AirPort Time Capsule

Based on the current version of the candidate list for authorisation, Apple products do not contain SVHC above the disclosure threshold except for the Apple Remote, iMac, Mac Pro and Mac mini, which each contain a coin battery with 1,2‑dimethoxyethane. The SVHC in the coin battery does not pose a safety risk to customers. To ensure the coin battery is recycled appropriately, you can visit for more information about our recycling services.

Does Apple use ozone-depleting substances?

No ozone‑depleting chemicals (ODCs) are used in any processes to manufacture components, materials or product packaging materials used by Apple, as stipulated by the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.

How do I make the most of the battery in my Apple device?

You can learn more about how your battery charges and maximizing battery performance by visiting

When and how should I get the battery of my Apple device replaced?

You can learn more about servicing and recycling your battery by visiting and

Does Apple offer recycling?

Yes. You can recycle any Apple device online. We’ll make sure it’s recycled responsibly or given a chance to be used again. You can visit for more information about our recycling services. Apple also offers free recycling of packaging on request in the United States and Canada for commercial, education and institutional customers. Contact your Apple sales representative for more information.

Does Apple set standards for environmental protection and worker rights in its supply chain?

Our Code of Conduct outlines our high standards for creating safer working conditions, treating workers fairly and using environmentally responsible practices in manufacturing. We demand that all suppliers doing business with Apple affirmatively agree to adhere to our Code of Conduct and supporting standards. We have maintained our rigorous assessment process to enforce this code. And when we uncover non-compliance with the code, we partner with our suppliers to help them improve their processes. Visit our Supplier Responsibility website to learn more about our efforts across our supply chain.