Additional Questions More answers to your questions about Apple and the environment.

1. Who leads environmental efforts at Apple?

In June 2013, Apple CEO Tim Cook appointed Lisa P. Jackson as Vice President, Environmental Initiatives. The Office of Environmental Initiatives works with teams across Apple to set strategy, engage stakeholders and communicate progress on Apple’s commitments to address climate change, develop green materials for safer products and use materials as efficiently as possible.

Apple’s Board of Directors oversees the CEO and other senior management in the competent and ethical operation of Apple on a day-to-day basis and ensures that the long-term interests of shareholders are being served. Lisa, who is now Vice President, Environment, Policy and Social Initiatives, reports to the CEO. Our integrated approach means that decisions about environmental and social issues are reviewed at the highest levels of the company. Executive Team members regularly review each new product during its development, focusing on material and design choices, the supply chain, packaging and product energy efficiency.

2. How does Apple conduct its Product Greenhouse Gas Life Cycle Assessment?

  1. To model the manufacturing phase, we use part-by-part measurements of the entire product along with data on part production. The measurements help us accurately determine the size and weight of the components and materials in the product, while data on manufacturing processes and yield loss during production allows us to account for the impact of manufacturing. The LCA includes accessories and packaging, as well as decreased emissions through Apple’s Supplier Clean Energy Programme. When calculating Apple’s comprehensive carbon footprint, we also include units that are repaired and replaced through AppleCare.

  2. To model customer use, we measure the power consumed by a product while it is running in a simulated scenario. Daily usage patterns are specific to each product and are a mixture of actual and modelled customer use data. For the purposes of our assessment, years of use, which are based on first owners, are modelled to be 4 years for macOS and tvOS devices and 3 years for iOS, iPadOS and watchOS devices. Most Apple products last longer and are often passed along, resold or returned to Apple by the first owner for others to use. More information on our product energy use is provided in our Product Environmental Reports.

  3. To model transportation, we use data collected on shipments of single products and multipack units by land, sea and air. We account for transporting materials between manufacturing sites, transporting products from manufacturing sites to regional distribution hubs, transporting products from regional distribution hubs to individual customers, and transporting products from final customers to recycling facilities.

  4. To model end of life, we use material composition data on our products and estimate the ratio of products that are sent to recycling or disposal. For products sent to recycling, we capture the initial processing by the recycler to prepare the product for recovery of electronic, metal, plastic and glass material streams. Subsequent downstream recycling processes are not included, as these are considered stages of production and not end‑of‑life processing. For products sent to disposal, we capture the emissions associated with landfilling or incineration of each type of material.

  5. After we collect data about manufacturing, use, transportation and end of life, we combine it with detailed greenhouse gas emission data. This emission data is based on a combination of Apple-specific and industry-average datasets for material production, manufacturing processes, electricity generation and transportation. Renewable energy used in the supply chain, initiated by suppliers independently or through the Apple Supplier Clean Energy Programme, is also accounted for within the LCA model. Combining product-specific information with emission data in our LCA allows us to compile detailed results for greenhouse gas emissions. The data and modelling approaches are checked for quality and accuracy by the Fraunhofer Institute in Germany.

There is inherent uncertainty in modelling carbon emissions due primarily to data limitations. For the top component contributors to Apple’s carbon emissions, Apple addresses this uncertainty by developing detailed process-based environmental models with Apple-specific parameters. For the remaining elements of Apple’s carbon footprint, we rely on industry-average data and assumptions.

Additional information on Apple’s LCA methodology is contained in a white paper that was presented at the 2018 CARE Innovation Conference in Vienna, Austria.

3. Does Apple report country-specific environmental data?

Yes. We break down our Scope 1 and 2 emissions, natural gas and electricity use for selected geographies in our 2022 Environmental Progress Report (PDF). The report also provides further information on energy use at our data centres.

4. Does Apple obtain third-party verification and assurance for its environmental impact data?

Yes. We obtain third-party verification for our scope 1, 2 and 3 greenhouse gas emissions, as well as our energy use, paper use, water withdrawal and waste for our corporate facilities (data centers, offices and retail stores) worldwide. Apex Companies (Apex) provides “reasonable assurance” — one of the highest levels of verification in the industry — for our corporate facilities data. See the Apple Corporate Assurance Statement (PDF) for general environmental impact data, including our scope 1 and 2 emissions as well as scope 3 emissions from business travel and employee commuting.

Scope 3 renewable energy production and avoided carbon emissions related to our Supplier Clean Energy Programme are also verified to a level of “reasonable assurance” by Apex. See the Apple Clean Energy Programme Assurance Statement (PDF) for data specific to the Supplier Clean Energy Programme.

Scope 3 greenhouse gas emissions related to our products, calculated using life cycle assessment, are checked for quality and accuracy by the Fraunhofer Institute in Germany in accordance with the internationally recognized ISO 14000 environmental management standards: ISO 14040 and 14044. See the Apple Comprehensive Carbon Footprint Assurance Statement (PDF).

5. Does Apple have an Environmental Health and Safety Policy?

Yes. Apple is committed to protecting the environment and the health and safety of our employees, our customers and the global communities in which we operate. For more information, read our Environmental Health and Safety Policy Statement (PDF).

6. Does Apple restrict substances that are hazardous to human health and the environment?

Yes. Apple’s Regulated Substances Specification details a broad range of substances that are restricted or banned from use in Apple products, packaging and manufacturing. All Apple products conform to the European Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive, which restricts the use of lead and other substances. Apple defines a material as RoHS compliant if it conforms to European Union Directive 2011/65/EU and its amendments, including exemptions for the use of lead. Apple is working to phase out the use of these exempted substances where technically possible. As a result of our precautionary approach to substances, many of Apple’s restrictions exceed regulatory requirements. View Apple’s Regulated Substances Specification (PDF) to learn more about our efforts to reduce and eliminate hazardous substances.

7. Does Apple restrict brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) from its products?

Yes. Apple defines a material as BFR‑free and PVC‑free if it contains less than 900 parts per million (ppm) of bromine and of chlorine. Apple led the industry in the phase-out of BFRs and PVC, and this 900-ppm limit is now standard in the electronics industry. If BFRs or PVC were present, the bromine or chlorine levels would need to be significantly higher than 900 ppm in order to be effective.

Apple’s phase-out of BFRs and PVC covers all new Apple product designs manufactured since 2009, all Beats products manufactured since 2016 and Beddit Sleep Monitors manufactured since late 2018. While Apple’s phase-out covers the vast majority of products and components, some older Apple product designs may not be fully BFR‑free and PVC‑free. However, these products, including their replacement parts and accessories, were still designed to meet regulatory requirements.

Power cords in Thailand, India and South Korea contain PVC due to country-specific requirements. We continue to seek approval for our PVC replacement.

8. What is REACH, and how is Apple complying with the REACH regulation?

The Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals Regulation EC 1907/2006, commonly referred to as REACH, is a European regulation on chemicals and their safe use. With the publication of candidate lists for authorisation, the European Chemicals Agency identifies sets of substances of very high concern (SVHC) that manufacturers must disclose to customers if used in their products above 0.1% by weight.

Based on the current version of the candidate list for authorisation, Apple products that contain the SVHCs above the disclosure threshold can be found in the REACH SVHC Disclosure (PDF).

The SVHCs used in these products do not pose a safety risk to customers under normal use conditions.

9. Does Apple use ozone-depleting substances?

No ozone‑depleting chemicals (ODCs) are used in any processes to manufacture components, materials or product packaging materials used by Apple, as stipulated by the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.

10. How is Apple helping to accelerate a circular economy?

A durable device is a greener device. When products can be used longer, fewer resources need to be extracted from the earth to make new ones. Apple’s continuing focus on making the best and most durable products, coupled with expert repair services, ensures that our products are used for a very long time. When our customers are done using their devices, we make it easy for them to recycle their devices responsibly.

In 2017, Apple made public our commitment to one day make products using only renewable and recycled materials. And, where possible, we aim to contribute material back to the market for Apple or others to use. With advancements like Daisy and Dave, our newest disassembly robots, we can recover more materials at a higher quality than through traditional recycling processes.

We have initiatives in place to ensure that the materials we use in our products are sourced responsibly — through strict standards and programmes that drive positive change. We are continuing that commitment, but we are also challenging ourselves to make all our products without extracting finite resources from the earth. It’s an ambitious goal that will require years of collaboration across Apple teams, our suppliers and recyclers — but our work is already under way.

For more information on our progress to date, read the 2022 Environmental Progress Report (PDF).

11. Is Apple reducing its use of plastics?

Apple is committed to eliminating plastics in our packaging by 2025 and transitioning to recycled and renewable plastics in our products.

We’ve already made significant progress in eliminating plastics in our packaging. Since 2015, we’ve reduced plastic in our product packaging by 75%. In fiscal year 2021, all newly released iPhone, iPad, Apple Watch and MacBook devices shipped in packaging that was more than 90% fibre-based.

In our products, we’re focused on using less plastic through material efficiency and replacing fossil fuel–based plastics with renewable or recycled alternatives. We are systematically exploring and qualifying recycled and renewable alternatives for every distinct grade of plastic used by Apple, so that whatever type of plastic a product needs, we identify a recycled or renewable option. In fiscal year 2021 alone, we introduced more than 100 parts with an average of 45% recycled plastic.

12. How do I make the most of the battery in my Apple device?

You can learn more about how your battery charges and maximising battery performance by visiting

13. When and how should I get the battery of my Apple device replaced?

You can learn more about servicing and recycling your battery by visiting

14. Does Apple offer recycling?

Yes. You can recycle any Apple device online. We’ll make sure it’s recycled responsibly or given a chance to be used again. You can visit for more information about our recycling services.

15. Does Apple set standards for environmental protection and worker rights in its supply chain?

The Apple Supplier Code of Conduct outlines the high standards our suppliers must meet for labour and human rights, health and safety, environmental protections, management systems and ethics. We require that all suppliers doing business with Apple adhere to our Supplier Code of Conduct and the associated Supplier Responsibility Standards. To enforce the code, we conduct rigorous assessments, reviewing over 500 criteria. When a violation of our code is identified, we require our suppliers to take immediate action, and we partner with them to help improve their operations and meet our standards. To learn more, visit our Supplier Responsibility website.

16. Does Apple work with environmental NGOs or other partners?

We work with a wide range of non-profit, industry, government and business partners around the world. We collaborate with other best-in-class companies across all our environmental initiatives through our memberships in organisations like Ceres and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD). On our climate change efforts, we work with organisations including Advanced Energy Economy (AEE), RE100, the Japan Climate Leaders’ Partnership and We Mean Business. Our work on creating circular material supply chains is supported by our membership with the Aluminium Stewardship Initiative and the Platform for Accelerating the Circular Economy (PACE). We’re also members of Green America’s Clean Electronics Production Network (CEPN) and the Green Chemistry and Commerce Council (GC3). For more information on our partnerships, read the 2022 Environmental Progress Report (PDF).