More answers to your questions about Apple and the environment.

Who leads environmental efforts at Apple?

Apple is committed to addressing climate change, to developing green materials for safer products and to using materials as efficiently as possible. In June 2013, Apple CEO Tim Cook appointed Lisa P. Jackson as Vice President, Environmental Initiatives. The Office of Environmental Initiatives works with teams from across Apple to set strategy, engage stakeholders and communicate progress.

Apple’s Board of Directors oversees the CEO and other senior management in the competent and ethical operation of Apple on a day-to-day basis and assures that the long-term interests of shareholders are being served. Lisa, who is now Vice President, Environment, Policy and Social Initiatives, reports to the CEO. Our integrated approach means that decisions about environmental issues are reviewed at the highest levels of the company. Executive Team members regularly review each new product during its development, focusing on material and design choices, the supply chain, packaging and product energy efficiency.

How does Apple conduct its Product Greenhouse Gas Life Cycle Assessment?

Apple uses five steps when conducting a product life cycle assessment (LCA):

Does Apple use external verification and assurance for its carbon emissions reporting?

Yes. We obtain third-party verification for our carbon emissions reporting. Bureau Veritas (BV) provided "reasonable assurance” — one of the highest levels of verification in the industry — for the Scope 1, 2 and 3 emissions associated with Apple's facilities. See the BV statement here.

Scope 3 carbon emissions related to our products, calculated using life cycle assessment, are checked for quality and accuracy by the Fraunhofer Institute in Germany, in accordance with the internationally recognized ISO 14000 environmental management standards: ISO 14040 and 14044.

Does Apple index its environmental performance data using Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) Sustainability Reporting Guidelines?

Apple is committed to openness in our environmental, social and governance policies and programs, and we share our progress through a variety of public reports, including our 2016 Environmental Responsibility Report. These reports contain Standard Disclosures from the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) G4 Sustainability Reporting Guidelines. Apple’s GRI Index can be viewed here.

Have any Apple facilities received ISO 14001 certification?

Yes. Apple first achieved ISO 14001 certification for a manufacturing site in 1996. We have maintained certification at our manufacturing facility in Ireland since it was first achieved in 2001 and at two sites in Cupertino — our engineering and design process centre and our corporate recycling centre — since 2013. ISO 14001 is a voluntary international standard that establishes the requirements for an organization’s environmental management system (EMS). The ISO 14001 standard helps a company manage the environmental impact of its operations in a systematic way that is integrated with overall business management processes.

Does Apple ban environmentally sensitive substances?

Yes. Apple’s Regulated Substances Specification details a broad range of substances that are restricted or banned from use in Apple products, packaging and manufacturing. Download Apple’s regulated Substances Specification (PDF). Learn more about our efforts to reduce or eliminate harmful toxins.

Do Apple products contain lead?

Apple is in compliance with the European Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive, which restricts the use of lead and other substances. As a result of our precautionary approach to substances, Apple phased out lead in plastic parts, paint and packaging material long before lead’s use was restricted.

What are Apple’s restrictions on brominated flame retardant-free (BFR-free) and polyvinyl chloride-free (PVC‑free) products?

Apple defines a material as BFR‑free and PVC‑free if it contains less than 900 parts per million (ppm) of bromine and of chlorine. The 900‑ppm limit is one of the strictest in the electronics industry and a concentration lower than the ban on lead in the European RoHS Directive. If BFRs or PVC were present, the bromine or chlorine levels would need to be significantly higher than 900 ppm in order to be effective.

Which products are covered by Apple’s BFR-free and PVC-free transition?

Apple’s phaseout of BFRs and PVC covers all parts of new Apple product designs manufactured after December 31, 2008. iPhone, iPad and Apple Watch are examples of products that are BFR‑free and PVC‑free. While Apple’s phaseout covers the vast majority of products and components, older product designs, replacement parts, accessories for older product designs, and older Beats products may not be fully BFR‑free and PVC‑free. New Beats product designs since 2015 are BFR‑free and PVC‑free.

What is REACH, and how is Apple complying with the REACH regulation?

The Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals Regulation EC 1907/2006, commonly referred to as REACH, is a European regulation on chemicals and their safe use. With the publication of candidate lists for authorization, the European Chemicals Agency identifies sets of substances of very high concern (SVHC) that manufacturers must disclose to customers if used in their products above 0.1 percent.

Based on the current version of the candidate list for authorization, Apple products do not contain SVHC above 0.1 percent except for Apple Remote, which contains a coin battery with 1,2-dimethoxyethane.

Does Apple use ozone-depleting substances?

No ozone‑depleting chemicals (ODCs) are used in any processes to manufacture components, materials or product packaging materials used by Apple, as stipulated by the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.

Does Apple have an Environmental Health and Safety Policy?

Apple is committed to protecting the environment, and the health and safety of our employees, customers and global communities in which we operate. For more information, read our Environmental Health and Safety Policy statement (PDF).

Does Apple offer recycling?

Yes. You can return any Apple device to the Apple Store for free recycling or visit apple.com/ca/recycling for more information about our recycling services. Apple also offers free recycling of packaging upon request in the U.S. and Canada for commercial, education and institutional customers. Contact your Apple sales representative for more information.